About Bolder Science

Our mission is to provide healthcare professionals with unbiased clinical research information, easily.

Currently, you can access the following clinical trials being conducted worldwide:

339,504 studies
in
214 countries
Clinical trial information and results are updated daily from ClinicalTrials.gov. The latest data update was conducted on 05/30/2020.
This website is for US healthcare professionals

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Clinical Trials of Interest

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finding clinical trials in which to enroll my patients

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Drug Interventions

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Clinical trial information and results are updated daily from ClinicalTrials.gov. The latest data update was conducted on 05/30/2020.
  • Checkpoint Inhibition (PD-1/PD-L1)

    The safety and efficacy of the agents and/or uses under investigation have not been established. There is no guarantee that the agents will receive health authority approval or become commercially available in any country for the uses being investigated.

     

    Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) serves as an immune checkpoint that inhibits the T-cell response.1 PD-1 is activated when it is engaged by its ligands (PD-L1 or PD-L2), present on the antigen-presenting cell, resulting in inhibition of T-cell function.1 Early evidence suggests that tumors may co-opt this pathway by upregulating expression of PD-1 ligands as a mechanism of immune resistance.1 Therefore, targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is a promising immunotherapeutic strategy that may enhance T-cell anti-tumor responses.1-3

    View Related Molecules

    References

    1. Pardoll DM. Nat Rev Cancer. 2012;12:252-264. PMID: 22437870
    2. Harris TJ, Drake CG. J Immunother Cancer. 2013;1:12. PMID: 24829749
    3. Disis ML. Semin Oncol. 2014;41(suppl 5):S3-S13. PMID: 25438997