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Recovery of Performance, Muscle Damage and Neuromuscular Fatigue Following Muscle Power Training

  • Clinicaltrials.gov identifier

    NCT03936595

  • Recruitment Status

    Terminated (There was a high drop-out rate and we were unable to recruit new subjects.)

  • First Posted

    May 3, 2019

  • Last update posted

    January 5, 2021

Study Description

Brief summary:

Muscle power is one of the most important parameters in almost every athletic action, and expresses the ability of the human muscle to produce great amounts of force with the greatest possible speed. Thus, muscle power is critical for high performance in athletic actions such as jumping, throwing, change of direction and sprinting. For enhancing their muscle power, athletes comprise several resistance training programs as part of their training. Muscle power training comprises of eccentric muscle actions, and the magnitude of these actions depend on the emphasis that is given on the concentric or eccentric action, respectively, of the muscles during the exercises. However, eccentric muscle action, especially when unaccustomed, can lead to exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), and deterioration of muscle performance. Despite the fact that muscle power training comprises eccentric muscle actions, and consequently can lead to muscle injury and muscle performance reduction during the following days, the recovery kinetics after acute muscle power training have not been adequately studied. However, information regarding the recovery of the muscles after a power training protocol, is critical for the correct design of a training microcycle, and the reduction of injury risk. The aim of the present study is to investigate the muscle injury provoked after acute muscle power training using three different power training exercise protocols. Additionally, we will examine the effect of these protocols on muscle performance and neuromuscular fatigue indices.

  • Condition or Disease:Power Training Exercise Protocols
  • Intervention/Treatment: Other: Core exercises protocol
    Other: Structural exercises protocol
    Other: Accentuated eccentric load exercises protocol
    Other: Control condition
  • Phase: N/A

Detailed Description

Muscle power is one of the most important parameters in almost every athletic action, and expresses the ability of the human muscle to produce great amounts of force with the greatest possible speed. Thus, muscle power is critical for high performance in athletic actions such as jumping, throwing, change of direction and sprinting. For enhancing their muscle power, athletes comprise several resistance training programs as part of their training. Core exercises as long as Olympic lifting has been used in muscle power training. The loads that are applied regarding the accomplishment of the most favorable power production are varying. Training load of 0% 1RM favored power production at the countermovement squat jump, while loads of 56% 1rm and 80% 1RM, favored the power production at squat and hang clean, respectively. Additionally, In the recent years, accentuated eccentric training has been proposed as a new training method for the enhancement of muscle power. This method emphasizes the eccentric component of the muscle contraction, and there is evidence supporting the greater production of muscle force after accentuated eccentric training compared with the typical resistance exercise training method. Taking the above into consideration, muscle power training comprises of eccentric muscle actions, and the magnitude of the eccentric component depends on the emphasis that is given on the concentric or eccentric action, respectively, of the muscles during the exercises. However, eccentric muscle action, especially when unaccustomed, can lead to exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Although concentric and isometric exercise may also lead to muscle injury, the amount of damage after eccentric muscle contractions is greater. EIMD, amongst others, is accompanied by increased levels of creatine kinase (CK) into the circulation, increased delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), reduction of force production, reduction of flexibility speed. Despite the fact that muscle power training comprises eccentric muscle actions, and consequently can lead to muscle injury and muscle performance reduction during the following days, the recovery kinetics after acute muscle power training protocols have not been adequately studied. However, information regarding the recovery of the muscles after a power training protocol, is critical for the correct design of a training microcycle, and the reduction of injury risk. The aim of the present study is to investigate the muscle injury provoked after muscle acute power training using three different power training exercise protocols. Additionally, the effect of these protocols on muscle performance and neuromuscular fatigue indices will be examined.

Study Design

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Actual Enrollment: 10 participants
  • Allocation: Randomized
  • Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
  • Intervention Model Description: Each participant will perform in a random order all four different experimental conditions
  • Masking: None (Open Label) ()
  • Primary Purpose: Treatment
  • Official Title: Investigation on the Recovery Kinetics of Performance, Muscle Damage and Neuromuscular Fatigue Indicators, Following Different Protocols for Muscle Power Development
  • Actual Study Start Date: May 2019
  • Actual Primary Completion Date: June 2019
  • Actual Study Completion Date: June 2019

Arms and interventions

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Core exercises protocol
Participants will perform 4 core exercises
Other: Core exercises protocol
Participants will perform: Squats, 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 60% 1RM Deadlifts, 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 60% 1RM Lunges, 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 60% 1RM Step ups, 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 60% 1RM
Experimental: Structural exercises protocol
Participants will perform 4 structural (Olympic lifting) exercises
Other: Structural exercises protocol
Participants will perform: Snatch, 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 60% 1RM Hang clean, 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 60% 1RM Push jerk, 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 60% 1RM Split push jerk, 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 60% 1RM
Experimental: Accentuated eccentric load exercises protocol
Participants will perform 4 exercises with eccentric loading
Other: Accentuated eccentric load exercises protocol
Participants will perform: Deadlifts - squat jump, 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 30% body mass (BM) Step down - squat jump, 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 30% BM Step down - lunges, 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 30% BM Hip thrusts, 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 30% BM
Other: Control condition
Participants will perform all the measurements that are comprised in the experimental conditions without performing any exercise protocol
Other: Control condition
Participants will perform all the measurements that are comprised in the experimental conditions without performing any exercise protocol

Outcome Measures

  • Primary Outcome Measures: 1. Change on delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), in the knee flexors (KF) and extensors (KE) of both limbs [ Time Frame: Prior to, immediately after, 1, 2, 3 days after the end of the experimental protocol ]
    Participants will perform three repetitions of a full squat movement, and rate their soreness level in knee flexors and extensors on a visual analog scale from 1 to 10 (VAS, with "no pain" at one end and "extremely sore" at the other), using palpation of the belly and the distal region of relaxed knee extensors and flexors.
  • 2. Change on countermovement jump (CMJ) height [ Time Frame: Prior to, immediately after, 1, 2, 3 days after the end of the experimental protocol ]
    CMJ height will be measured in 3 maximal efforts (the best jump will be recorded) on an Ergojump contact platform
  • 3. Change on isometric peak torque of the knee extensors (KE) [ Time Frame: Prior to, immediately after, 1, 2, 3 days after the end of the experimental protocol ]
    Isometric peak torque of the KE will be measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60◦/sec
  • 4. Change on isometric peak torque of the knee flexors (KF) [ Time Frame: Prior to, immediately after, 1, 2, 3 days after the end of the experimental protocol ]
    Isometric peak torque of the KF will be measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60◦/sec
  • 5. Change on concentric isokinetic peak torque of the knee extensors (KE) [ Time Frame: Prior to, immediately after, 1, 2, 3 days after the end of the experimental protocol ]
    Concentric peak torque of the KE will be measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60◦/sec
  • 6. Change on concentric isokinetic peak torque of the knee flexors (KF) [ Time Frame: Prior to, immediately after, 1, 2, 3 days after the end of the experimental protocol ]
    Concentric peak torque of the KF will be measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60◦/sec
  • 7. Change one eccentric isokinetic peak torque of the knee extensors (KE) [ Time Frame: Prior to, immediately after, 1, 2, 3 days after the end of the experimental protocol ]
    Eccentric peak torque of the KE will be measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60◦/sec
  • 8. Change on eccentric isokinetic peak torque of the knee flexors (KF) [ Time Frame: Prior to, immediately after, 1, 2, 3 days after the end of the experimental protocol ]
    Eccentric peak torque of the KF will be measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60◦/sec
  • 9. Change on the concentration of plasma CK activity [ Time Frame: Prior to, immediately after, 1, 2, 3 days after the end of the experimental protocol ]
    Plasma CK activity will be measured with a biochemical analyzer
  • 10. Change on the concentration of blood lactate [ Time Frame: Prior to, and immediately after the end of the experimental protocol ]
    Lactate will be measured with a portable lactate analyzer using capillary blood

Eligibility Criteria

  • Ages Eligible for Study: 18 to 35 Years (Adult)
  • Sexes Eligible for Study: Male
  • Accepts Healthy Volunteers: Yes

Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

- No recent history of musculoskeletal injury

- No use of ergogenic supplements and drugs

- No use of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant supplements (> 6 months)

- No participation at intense eccentric exercise for at least 3 days before protocols

Exclusion Criteria:

- Recent history of musculoskeletal injury

- Use of ergogenic supplements and drugs

- Use of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant supplements (< 6 months) - Participation at intense eccentric exercise for at least 3 days before protocols

Contacts and Locations

Contacts

Locations

Greece, Thessaly
Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry, Exercise Physiology,and Sports Nutrition, School of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly
Trikala

Sponsors and Collaborators

University of Thessaly

Investigators

Principal Investigator: Ioannis G Fatouros, PhD University of Thessaly

More Information