May 10, 2019
May 10, 2019
This study evaluates the impact of a high phenolic acid intake from wholegrain wheat bread on human vascular function and plasma phenolic acid concentrations in healthy adults. All participants received a high fibre flatbread with enzymatically released free FA (14.22 mg), an equivalent standard high fibre bread (2.34 mg), or a white bread control (0.48 mg).
Clinical trial data have indicated an association between wholegrain consumption and a reduction in surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease. A number of components of wheat have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits associated with wholegrain consumption, most notably the fiber component. However, phenolic compounds that are bound to arabinoxylan fibre, particularly the hydroxycinnamate ferulic acid, may also contribute, in part, to vascular health effects. These phenolics may be more active when released enzymatically from the fiber prior to ingestion. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine whether the intake of high fibre bread containing higher free ferulic acid levels (enzymatically released during processing) enhances human endothelium-dependent vascular function to a greater extent than that of traditional wholegrain bread and/or a white bread control.
|Active Comparator: White bread
White bread 3 x 30 g, single serving
Dietary Supplement: White Bread
White bread made with commercial white flour with bran/fibre removed
|Active Comparator: Wholegrain
Standard wholegrain, 3 x 30 g, single serving
Dietary Supplement: Wholegrain bread
Wholegrain bread made with commercial wholegrain flour.
|Experimental: Wholegrain Enzyme
Enzyme-treated wholegrain, 3 x 30 g, single serving
Dietary Supplement: Wholegrain Enzyme
Wholegrain bread made with enzyme-treated commercial wholegrain flour.
1) fasting lipids in the upper half of the normal range (triacylglycerol 0.8-3.2 mmol/l and
total cholesterol 6.0-8.0 mmol/l); 2) BMI 25-32 kg/m2; 3) non-smoker; 4) not diabetic
(diagnosed or fasting glucose < 7 mmol/l) or suffer from endocrine disorders; 5) hemoglobin and liver enzymes levels within the normal range [Alanine Transaminase (ALT): 0-55 IU/L; Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP): 38-126 U/L; Aspartate Transaminase (AST): 0-45 IU/L; Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT): 12-58 IU/L]); 6) not having suffered a myocardial infarction/stroke in the past 12 months; 7) not suffering from renal or bowel disease or have a history of choleostatic liver or pancreatitis; 8) not on drug treatment for hyperlipidemia, hypertension, inflammation or hyper-coagulation; 9) not taking any fish oil, fatty acid or vitamin and mineral supplements; 10) no history of alcohol misuse; 11) not planning, or on a weight reduction regime; 12) not having taken antibiotics in the 6 months prior to the study; and 13) being able to consume the study interventions. Exclusion Criteria: - Gluten sensitive
United Kingdom, Berkshire
Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences
University of Reading
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council